James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps was an English Shakespearean scholar, and a collector of English Nursery Rhymes and Fairy Tales.
The son of Thomas Halliwell, he was born in London and was educated privately and at Jesus College, Cambridge. He devoted himself to antiquarian research, particularly into early English literature. In 1839 he edited Sir John Mandeville's Travels; in 1842 published an Account of the European manuscripts in the Chetham Library, besides a newly discovered metrical romance of the 18th century. In 1842 he published the first edition of Nursery Rhymes of England followed by Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Tales, containing the first printed version of the Three Little Pigs. In 1846 he published a version of the Christmas carol The Twelve Days of Christmas. In 1848 he brought out his Life of Shakespeare, illustrated by John Thomas Blight, which passed through several editions; in 1853–1865 a sumptuous edition, limited to 150 copies, of Shakespeare in folio, with full critical notes; in 1863 a Calendar of the Records at Stratford-on-Awn; in 1864 a History of New Place.
After 1870 he entirely gave up textual criticism, and devoted his attention to elucidating the particulars of Shakespeare's life. He collated all the available facts and documents in relation to it, and exhausted the information to be found in local records in his Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare. He was mainly instrumental in the purchase of New Place for the corporation of Stratford-on-Avon, and in the formation there of the Shakespeare museum.