Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay PC was a British historian and Whig politician. He wrote extensively as an essayist and reviewer; his books on British history were hailed as literary masterpieces. He held political office as Secretary at War between 1839 and 1841 and Paymaster-General between 1846 and 1848. He played a major role in reforming education in India. He supported the replacement of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction in all schools, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers. Macaulay divided the world into civilized nation and barbarism, with Britain representing the high point of civilization. He was wedded to the "Idea of Progress, especially in terms of the liberal freedoms. He opposed radicalism while idealizing historic British culture and traditions.